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Sunday, 19 March 2017

A Twelve Year Serendipity Due To A Mistaken Identity


In 2005 I received an email from someone asking me how life was in Kenya. It recounted the latest news as if I, the reader, should know exactly who and what was being written about.  I politely replied that I thought they had messaged the wrong person as I did not know any of the information or names they had mentioned. It was the equivalent of a ‘wrong number’, but if it had been a telephone call, it is very unlikely that a conversation thread would have gone beyond “sorry, wrong number”. However, I think sometimes ‘wrong e-mails’ are actually a more welcoming medium, it is much easier to strike up a conversation with an anonymous person where voice, accent and intonation cannot be judged. Naturally, the return reply to my email was an apology and an explanation of how such a mistake could have happened. The email was from someone who shared my surname, and of course a natural conversation thread was bound to follow.

A few weeks later his daughter wrote to me saying they had a cousin “3 times removed (or something like that”.) Her name was Penny Gatehouse and she owned some interesting items inherited from her late husband’s family whose ancestor had been Sir William Robinson, Governor of Hong Kong.  Hong Kong is where Catchick Paul Chater made his name and fortune, and I was aware that Sir William’s life and Paul Chater’s overlapped.  (For instance, they jointly co-ordinated the Diamond Jubilee celebrations in Hong Kong in 1897 honouring Queen Victoria, Sir William having appointed Chater as chairman of the organising Jubilee Committee.) The email went on to say that Penny would love to hear from me, I wasted no time and made the call.  What a delightful lady she was. As luck would have it, she was only about 30 minutes from me, and we made arrangements for me to visit her the following week.

Penny’s home was in the old market town of Lymington, a stones throw from the sea but still right in the heart of the New Forest on the south coast of the UK. She was a very spritely 86, full of verve, enthusiasm and wonderful stories. Penny spoke about her late husband and  how they ran a family business together, her conversation jumped around a bit, she interrupted herself with a sub-plot to a story, sometimes two sub-plots, her mental agility kept me on my toes. As she began to retrieve items of interest and photographs, she became more animated and I was kicking myself for not recording everything she was telling me. She was pretty well pulling cupboards and drawers apart showing me various beautiful antiques and items of interest.

But the pièce de résistance was a stunning Chinese silk embroidered scroll. It had been presented to Sir William Robinson on the day of his departure from Hong Kong in 1898 where he had served as Governor for 6 ½ years.

Image 1: Liz Chater


It was so long she didn’t have enough floor space to roll it out and nowhere high enough to hang it in a straight line.  Penny was eager to show me the whole thing, so, without missing a beat, she hopped up on the bed and hung it on a picture hook high up on the wall.  We then carefully unrolled it down the wall, laying it flat on the bed, it must have been 12 feet long.

What is that well known phrase?
Ah yes…….Shock and Awe.

Image 2: Liz Chater
The embroidery was simply stunning. It was in magnificent condition and the colours were still bright and fresh as if it had only recently been completed rather than being over 100 years old. We both bent over and closely examined it. Penny was scrutinising its condition after so many years of it being tucked away in its protective case. I, on the other hand simply couldn’t believe the beautiful craftsmanship and minute detail that lay before my eyes.

Image 3: Liz Chater
Penny and I had two different reactions but we were both in complete unison when it came to the magnificence of such an incredible and historically important piece of Hong Kong history. Before my eyes lay unseen history, in fact it was UNKNOWN history –no one apart from the family, knew this beautiful parting gift given to Sir William still existed. It was, and still is, a privilege for me to be the first person outside of the family to see this superb and exquisite creation.


Image 4: Liz Chater. A snapshot of some of the intricate detail


Image 5: Liz Chater. A snapshot of some of the intricate detail
By all accounts, this was turning in to the most perfect day.
And then Penny said:   “……but there’s more, do you want to see his medals?……” There was of course, no question that I wouldn’t want to, and in a trice Penny guided me to the framed honours board.

Image 6: Liz Chater
Officially, my breath was taken.

Therefore, presented here for the first time and never before seen in public, is what Penny affectionately called The Robinson Tribute as well as the privately held collection of Sir William's medals and honours which are lovingly kept and displayed by the family.

Shortly after my visit to Penny, I created a separate page on my old website for Sir William Robinson and The Robinson Tribute where I uploaded a couple of photographs.  It wasn’t long before they were attracting a lot of attention and a number of people messaged me concerning the embroidery. “Was it on public display?”, “could I put them in touch with the family?” “could they have pictures?”, “where did you find THAT?”,  “does anyone in Hong Kong know about it?” “where will it end up?” And so many more. Penny had made it perfectly clear that it was a family piece and will continue to be inherited down the generations of her family.

Knowing that the embroidery was of great historical significance, particularly to Hong Kong, I had also uploaded some of the images to gwulo.com a website dedicated to finding and preserving anything of historic value related to Hong Kong in a digital format. I also sent photographs to the Hong Kong Museum of History.

Five years after that in 2011 the Hong Kong Museum of History made contact with me  again and said they liked the photographs and would like to look into the possibility of using the scroll in an exhibition.

By this time, Penny had become frail and was no longer interested in enquiries. However, I gave the museum as much background information as I was able to.



- I had first made contact with the family in 2005
- Penny owned and was custodian of the scroll
- I had seen and photographed it with Penny's permission
- It was a cherished family heirloom
- Penny was only contactable via post or telephone


I agreed to post a letter to Penny on their behalf, which I duly did.


The museum was keen to hear if Penny had replied, and asked me only a few days later if there was any news.

By now Penny had had enough and I had to inform the museum of my conversation with her. it was of course very disappointing news. Having received the letter, Penny telephoned me and advised me that she no longer had any of the items, that all had been passed to her sons.

This was the end of the journey.

Or was it?

The museum once again contacted me four years later in 2015 with the exciting news that there were plans to renovate the permanent exhibition of 'The Hong Kong Story'. My posting on the gwulo.com site
(http://gwulo.com/william-robinson-hong-kong-governor) had reminded them of the scroll's existence and what a gem it was. Again, I attempted to help them.

Given the age that Penny would be by now, (potentially in her mid 90s) I was not expecting her to still be at her home in Lymington.  I carried out some local research once more, and notified the museum that although she had given the items of interest to her sons a few yeas ago, I had also discovered that Penny had sadly passed away in 2013.

What I was able to do was find and make contact with Penny's son, I made a phone call, explained who I was and asked them if they minded if I could put them in touch with the museum. They agreed.

That day I felt I had really achieved progress, I had successfully connected the family with the museum, and duly introduced them via email.

In 2017 after much deliberation and soul searching, Penny’s son agreed to sell The Robinson Tribute to the Hong Kong Museum of History for their archive and display use. It will at last be featured in all its full glory as well as maintained and preserved for many years to come.  I feel honoured and proud to have had a part in the instigation of this acquisition by the museum of an item of great historic significance that quite simply, no one knew about.  I would imagine it was a difficult decision to make for the family but the future of the embroidery is secure, and that is very pleasing.

I believe it will eventually, be put on display as part of the permanent exhibition of Hong Kong’s history. It is likely to be alongside the only other known existing silk tribute scroll that was once presented to Sir Frederick Lugard. He was given his Chinese silk embroidery in 1910 at the time of his departure from Hong Kong as the then Governor.  In 2011 it too was gifted to the Hong Kong Museum of History by the respective Lugard family members.  To possess both beautiful silk embroideries must be one of the most exciting things for the museum in Hong Kong. 


Image 8: The Lugard Tribute by the University Museum and Art Gallery of the University of Hong Kong

Image 9: Liz Chater. The complete Robinson Tribute

And to think it all started because someone asked me in an email “How’s life in Kenya?”

This was indeed a 12 year serendipitous journey.

Image 10: Liz Chater
Image 11: Liz Chater
Image 12: Liz Chater
Image 13: Liz Chater

Hon. Dr. Ho Kai then handed the address to his Excellency and said: “The original has been sent on board, being of a very bulky nature.  This is the bill of lading and the key of the box and photograph of the address.”

There were two other addresses presented to Sir William at the time of his departure, one from the Hongkong community as a whole and the other from the Parsee community. The presentation of all three addresses were made in the St. George’s Hall and Sir William arrived punctually and was received in front of the City Hall by a guard of honour consisting of the men of the Hongkong Regiment.



Image 14: Liz Chater Private Archive. William Robinson portrait as Governor in the Bahamas 1878.


Acknowledgements:
My thanks once more to the late Penny Gatehouse and her family for sharing their private collection with me.

Wednesday, 1 March 2017

Armenian Church Calcutta - Social History Snippets

Armenians in Calcutta - Social History Snippets.


List of Wardens of the Armenian Holy Nazareth Church, Calcutta



Names of Deacons and Sextons at the Armenian Church, Calcutta

List of Office Staff at the Armenian Church Calcutta

My thanks to George Aghjayan for sourcing the films.




Monday, 12 December 2016

Restored and Ignored: The Armenian Cemetery at Hyderabad is Neglected Once Again

I write this post out of sheer frustration and exasperation.

In 2009 I wrote about the appalling conditions the Armenian Cemetery at Hyderabad was in then. Prior to that, the late Omar Khalidi had written about its poor state in 2005. In 2010 I again wrote about the neglect this cemetery received. A year ago, with much fanfare, hype and numerous press releases the cemetery had at last, been given the longed for attention it deserved. This was the perfect opportunity to restore and preserve the derelict but historically important Armenian cemetery in Hyderabad. A press statement said: “….the Department of Archaeology and Museums has not only spent Rs. 25 Lakh for renovation but also have played a key role in the ongoing efforts directed at preservation of the Armenian Cemetery at Uppuguda…”


Images courtesy of the Armenian College Website


But alas! Here we are in December 2016, a year on and once again, it can be found in the most dreadful of conditions.





No basic preservation work has been done in this cemetery since December 2015 when the Armenian Ambassador for India and Fr. Zaven of the Armenian Church in India visited the site. Mr. Rao the Chief Minister’s Office principal advisor in Hyderabad “conducted a round table discussion where very constructive views and suggestions were exchanged on all three sides on the subject of reviving the Armenian connection with the city of Hyderabad and the state of Telengana within the context of 21st century. He went on to assure the visiting Pastor and the Ambassador that full co-operation and assistance shall be extended by the government at all times to Armenians who are keen to reconnect with their past in Hyderabad……..”

It is incredible to think that authorities are prepared to let a slice of Armenian history evaporate in the wind. And nobody seems to mind or care.

And which genius decided that painting numbers of the historical stones was the best way of cataloguing them?

This is the grave and tomb of Arakiel of Denbez. Anno 1691. (1645 A.D.).



For 300+ years this tombstone has survived in tact without adverse effects by the weather, It has survived everything the harsh Indian climate can throw at it and then man decided he needed to paint a number on it. Paint? Why on earth was paint used on this tombstone? Why couldn’t someone create a small marker and place it beside the grave and photograph that for identification purposes? Who decided that numerical graffiti is acceptable on historical Armenian grave markers?

More paint on the graves in Hyderabad.
This grave inscription has worn away but that still doesn’t make it acceptable to daub paint on it.


This cemetery deserves genuine long term care, preservation and respect. Not just for a photo opportunity for the great and good to give themselves a pat on the back, but daily care. Armenians have lost so much history already we should not be complicit in allowing more to disappear.


Once again, let us all hope that the Armenian cemetery in Hyderabad can be respected and maintained on a long term basis and not just for a photo opportunity. Perhaps the Archaeology Department could invest some of the time it so readily promised last year, into a genuine long term preservation programme?

Wednesday, 30 November 2016

Gladys Bagram: The Scent of a Woman and Her Love for Theo



A year ago, as I was coming to the end of a scanning project, I wrote this to my Facebook followers. For months I had been immersed in photographs from the 1920s and 1930s. They once belonged to Gladys Bagram wife of Theo Bagram, nephew of Sir Paul Chater from the period when she was in Hong Kong with Theo and Sir Paul. Gladys had a certain je ne sais quoi, and one particular evening she captured my mind again as she had done many times during the scanning.


Gladys Bagram
Gladys Bagram has an everlasting scent. Her perfume is on everything I am touching; photographs, postcards, documents. I am finally finishing off the scanning, and Gladys’s perfume hangs in the air, it wafts around me gently seeping up from the desk. It has the bouquet of a by-gone era, I see her standing in her finery and she is meeting me in every image with her 1930's perfume. It is quite extraordinary that it has lasted all these years and a perfumier would be able to recognise it in an instant. In the meantime, I'm in Hong Kong, South Africa, Rhodesia, Italy, Margate and even Taylor Avenue with her. She meticulously catalogued her travels with Theo, and after he died she continued to collect photographs and recount to her family her travelling tales.  Her presence and her fragrance accompany me through the scanning journey. Fleetingly, I am lost in time, absorbed into her world through her sweet-smelling photographs.

Theo Bagram
The even more extraordinary thing is the images of her beloved darling Theo smell even stronger of her heady perfume, exuding her passion and love for him in abundance. Her aroma is everywhere this evening as I attempt to finish the scanning of this last batch of photographs. The journey with these pictures has been amazing, their visual narrative is remarkable, I will attempt to give a voice to their life story, Theo and Gladys were irreplaceable. And her scent lives on.

Monday, 28 November 2016

Hastings Wouldn’t Have Done It Without Rev. Parthenio: The Greek Church Calcutta, A Small Anecdote.


Image: British Library. Reverend Parthenio
Rev. Constantine Parthenio was a Greek priest in Calcutta. Responding to a sanction of the Patriarch of Constantinople, Rev. Parthenio arrived in India from Corfu in 1775[1].

 *NOTE: The hyperlinks in square brackets [ ] do not work in this blog, please scroll to the bottom to read the links.

Somewhere in the course of history Rev. Parthenio’s contribution to the founding of the original Greek Church in Calcutta has been lost. 

History rightly remembers Alexious Argyree as the founder of the Greek community in Calcutta, he had first sailed into Calcutta around 1750 and for the next 20 years traded between India and Greece.  In 1771 Argyree petitioned Warren Hastings for permission to establish a Greek Church in Calcutta which was granted.

After his death in 1777 Argyree’s estate is credited for its financial contribution towards the purchase of the ground and the building costs of the church. However the majority of the funds to build the Greek Church came from voluntary contributions purely “on the solicitation of Mr. Parthenio. This gentleman attracted the notice of Mr. Hastings, [i]who placed his named at the head of the Subscription for two thousand Rupees and thus set an example to the English to encourage the pious intentions of the Greeks. The English gentlemen contributed largely and the few poor Greeks trading to Bengal added to the aggregate.” The cost of the church amounted to approximately 30,000 Rupees. The foundation of the original Greek church was laid in 1780, 3 years after the death of Argyree and it was consecrated, presumably by Rev. Parthanio on the 6th August 1781. 


But it was Rev. Parthenio’s words and persuasive manner that galvanised the local English gentlemen, including Warren Hastings to dig deep into their money chests and contribute the final amounts required to complete the church.   Hastings would never have done it without the involvement of Rev. Parthenio with whom he had become close friends. In an early sketch of Bengal, Rev. Parthenio was remembered as “a gentleman, polite and communicative, and one who is unquestionably the most enlightened person under the English government of all the descendants of Hellas.”  


Over time the importance of Rev. Parthenio’s role in bringing a Greek church to Calcutta has been side-lined in favour of quoting Argyree as the originator and Warren Hastings as the benefactor, but without Rev. Parthenio’s efforts the early Greek Church may never have been built.  In his Will[2] Rev. Parthenio confirmed his involvement:

“I came to this country in the year 1775 and was so exceedingly fortunate as to gain the countenance and favour of Mr. Hastings then Governor General, and the good will and esteem of many of the most respectable people in the place. By the generous assistance of Mr. Hastings and other English gentlemen together with contributions of the Greeks in Bengal, I was enabled to build a church for them. I have since been very unfortunate, but it affords me in expressible satisfaction that I have even been so happy as to retain the esteem and favour of all my old friends, who have been so good as to extend their benevolence and kindness to me……”

British Library L/AG/34/29/15/49

Following his death in 1803 an inventory[3] of his possessions revealed he was an exceptionally well read and learned man with an almost insatiable appetite for books.
British Library L/AG/34/27/29/170




Rev. Parthenio even had a copy of a book by well known Armenian Joseph Emin ‘The Life of Joseph Emin.’ https://archive.org/details/lifeadventuresof00eminuoft



Also in his possession at the time of his death were 10 copies of the plans drawn up for the erection of the Greek Church. This is the first known proof that Rev. Parthenio had more than just a cursory involvement at the early stages. Interestingly, also listed was a rare portrait of himself in a gilt frame.

It is widely known that Rev. Parthenio was one of a number of local men in Calcutta used by Johann Zoffany in 1787 to depict Jesus and his disciples in the painting of The Last Supper which hangs today at the altar of St. John’s Church, Kolkata. Along with Rev. Parthenio as Jesus, other well known British men in Calcutta depicted in The Last Supper were the auctioneer William Tulloh who portrayed Judas, and John the Apostle is represented by William Coates Blacquiere a Justice of the Peace and police magistrate in Calcutta at the time Zoffany was planning the execution of the painting. Incidentally, Tulloh was misled by Zoffany, he thought he was going to portray John the Apostle but Zoffany had other ideas for him. Extracted from The Friend of India a small article explains how Zoffany was thinking:  “…He [Zoffany] was one day recounting to the late Dr. Carey the names of those whom he had drawn for each of the Apostles; and told him that after long search, he found in the face of old [Tulloh], the founder of a great house,  one exactly suited to his purpose; and that he allured him to his studio, under the notion that he was to sit for the Apostle John….”[4]


 
Image via TripAdvisor: The painting by Johann Zoffany of ‘The Last Supper’, still hanging in St. John’s Church.

Investigating Rev. Parthenio a little deeper I have discovered that a portrait of him was made by artist Francis Renaldi around 1789.  It was sent back to Warren Hastings in London with a request from the artist that it be exhibited at the Royal Academy. Unfortunately Royal Academy archives know nothing of the painting and there is no record of it ever having been shown.[5] One other known portrait was made of Rev. Parthenio by Ozias Humphry and it was a full length water-colour. A coloured print of Rev. Parthenio attending a Bengal reception of Lord Cornwallis exists at the British Library, from the image it is clear that he is a very striking man.

Image: British Library. Reverend Parthenio



Lord Cornwallis Levee, Calcutta 1792. Image: British Library.



Image courtesy of the British Library. Edward Tiretta of the Bazaar greeting Father Parthenio [black robe, tall hat].
After Rev. Parthenio’s death, a portrait of him was exhibited at the ‘Calcutta Exhibition of Pictures for 1832’[6] at the Town Hall. Described as “chaste and vigorous, the hands are particularly elegant and would have satisfied the fastidious taste of Lord Byron himself.  They are quite gentlemanly and suggest an idea of perfect freedom from all manual labour…”. Could this be a painting  by Zoffany, or one by Francis Renaldi who had been resident in Calcutta around 1789 for 10 years?

As for Reverend Constantine Parthenio, I believe he should have more recognition than he currently receives for his important part in bringing the first Greek Church to Calcutta and his contribution to the Greek community of that city. Without his deep belief and determination,  along with his persuasive manner amongst the English community of Calcutta,  Argyree’s wish would not have been fulfilled.


This story of The Last Supper at St. John’s Church made me think about The Last Supper hanging in the Armenian Church in Kolkata. 

Painted around 1897 by Albert Edward Harris, a resident English artist, it was presented to the church by members of the Balthazar family. Did Harris also use local Calcutta gentlemen to depict Jesus and his disciples just as Zoffany did 100 or so years previously?  

Photo: Liz Chater. The Armenian Church Kolkata. An historic occasion took place in 2008 when the ordination of a priest was conducted by the Catholicos of All Armenians Karekin II. Deacon Harout became Father Avetis. The beautiful church altar providing a magnificent backdrop to the ceremony. The paintings by Albert Harris look down on the auspicious occasion.

He and his first wife Maria Leonard were married in Merthyr Tydfil Wales in 1890 where they lived for about a year. They can be placed in Wales in April of 1891 from the census where he was listed as an ‘artist, painter, sculptor’ living at 6 Partridge Road, Roath.  Their first child Leonard Harris was born in January 1892 in Simla, so it would seem logical that they probably left the UK for India sometime in the late spring early summer of 1891. The family eventually settled in Calcutta but unfortunately Maria died in 1911 whilst en route to the UK.  Albert remarried in 1913 in Calcutta to Ethel Issard and they went on to have 2 children together, Diana Elisabeth in 1915 and Edward Brian in 1916, the family remained in Calcutta until his retirement in 1927.[7] He and his family lived at 25a Rowland Road where he had his studio and an art supply outlet as well as the family home. He was a founding member of the Calcutta Rotary Club.

The Times of India 1 September 1927



Photo: Liz Chater. The Enshrouding of Our Lord by Albert Edward Harris



Photo: Liz Chater. The Last Supper and the Holy Trinity above by Albert Edward Harris




Photo: Liz Chater. The dedication plaque of the Balthazar family.

In loving memory of Carapiet Balthazar & Hosannah Balthazar. The Altar piece consisting of three paintings representing
“The Holy Trinity”
“The Lord’s Supper”
And “the Enshrouding of Our Lord”
Painted by Mr. A.E. Harris an English artist was presented to The Holy Church of Nazareth Calcutta in July 1901, by their children.

1. Mrs. Annie A.T. Apcar
5. Miss Mary Balthazar
2. Mrs. Rosie A.M. Sarkies
6. Miss Aileen Balthazar
3. Mr. Gregory Balthazar
7. Mr. Balthazar Carapiet Balthazar
4. Mrs. Elizabeth M.J. Joakim
8. Miss Edith Balthazar

The Altar piece was with the sanction of His Eminence Bishop Malachi, the Prelate of Persia, India and the East consecrated on the 21st July 1901 by the Revds. Mesrope C. David and Basil P. Alexy during the Wardenship of Mr. Arratoon Thomas Apcar and Mr. Marcar Chater.

This tablet was placed by the Church Committee.

1. Mrs. Annie Apcar (nee Balthazar) was married to Toonie Apcar a barrister in Calcutta in 1890.[8] They had a daughter Catherine and the family settled in London. Their life and that of several members of other Armenians who migrated to England from India all feature in some detail in a book by Christopher Carlisle the son of Catherine aka Kitty.  “A Merry Widow And Two Gentlemen”[9]. Kitty kept hundreds of letters, sent to her by friends and family, this book is a lively and interesting read for unique Armenian social history in London.

2. Rosie married Arratoon Michael Sarkies in Calcutta in 1896.[10] They went on to have two daughters, the family also settled in London.

3. Gregory Balthazar known as Sonnie married Christine Zakian in Rangoon in 1902[11]. They and their two children remained in India.

4. Elizabeth Balthazar married Minas John Joakim in Rangoon in 1899[12]. They had four daughters, two of whom where born in Switzerland where the family lived. Although Minas died in Switzerland his body was returned to London and laid to rest at Kensal Green Cemetery in 1965.

5. Mary Balthazar died in London in 1966[13], she never married.

6. Aileen Balthazar married Chater Paul Chater in 1908 in London[14]. He was a nephew of Sir Catchick Paul Chater. Aileen and Chater had a daughter Esme.

7. Balthazar Carapiet Balthazar aka Jack married Helen Kendrick Mosher, an American citizen in Rangoon in 1912[15]. Jack died in London in 1922 and after Helen returned to Rangoon she began the process to declare her intention to retake American citizenship.[16] After a protracted application, she returned there in 1947, and finally secured citizenship in 1956. She died in 1962[17]. They had no children.

8. Edith Balthazar married Malcolm Catchick Sarkies in 1903[18] and they had one child. Malcolm died in Monte Carlo in 1941 whilst Edith died in London in 1966.

Image: Liz Chater archive. The Balthazar Sisters.



Today, the Balthazar family and their descendants may be dispersed around the world, but  the memory of their forebears lives on in the dedication of The Last Supper the painting that is still hanging in the Armenian Church, Kolkata.


[1] Historical and Ecclesiastical Sketches of Bengal from the Earliest Settlement, Until The virtual Conquest of that Country by the English. Printed in Calcutta 1829.
[2] British Library L/AG/34/29/15/49
[3] British Library L/AG/34/27/29/170
[4] The Friend of India 1 October 1835
[5] British Artists in India 1760-1820 P.65
[7] Times of India 1 September 1927
[8] British Library N1-211-211
[9] Letters from A Merry Widow And Two Gentlemen 1906-1914 edited by Christopher Carlisle published by Images Publishing, ISBN 1 897817 59 2.
[10] British Library N1-248-25 marriage record
[11] British Library N11-10-303 marriage record
[12] British Library N1-295-31 marriage record
[13] England and Wales Civil Registration Death Index 1916-2007 Vol 5c page 257 Q4 1966.
[14] Copy of marriage certificate in my private archive
[15] British Library N1-383-258 marriage record
[16] US Consul Registration Applications 1916-1925
[17] California Death Index 1940-1997
[18] British Library N1-312-242 marriage record


[i] For a comprehensive account of the Greek community in Calcutta which includes detailed family histories I suggest ‘Ulysses in the Raj’ by Paul Byron Norris, published by BACSA 1992.